Photocopying the Treaty of Nanking in January 1843 : reference notes

R. Derek Wood

(1) R. D. Wood, ‘Photocopying in January 1843: the Treaty of Nanking’ in R. Erlandsen and V. Halvorsen (eds.), Darkness and light - The proceedings of the ESHP Symposium, Oslo 1994, Oslo: Norsk Fotohistorisk Forening 1995, 145-150.

(2) ‘Grossbritannien. London, 27 Dec.’, Beilage zur Allgemeinen Zeitung (6 Januar 1843), 43 [passage quoted translated from the original German].

(3) Collen as artist: 100 of his paintings and drawings, all except 3 being portraits, were exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1820 to 1872, listed in A. Graves, The Royal Academy of Art Exhibitors 1769-1904, London: 1905; and Kinsmead Reprints 1970, 104-5.

(4) Viscount Esher, ed., The Girlhood of Queen Victoria, A selection from Her Majesty’s Diaries between the years 1832 and 1840 (2 vols)., London: John Murray 1912, vol.1., 77, 121, 129.

(5) Collen as photographer: See H. J. P. Arnold, W. H. F. Talbot: Pioneer of photography and man of science, London: Hutchinson 1977, 138-140, 336; and L. Schaaf, ‘Henry Collen and the Treaty of Nanking’, History of Photography, 6:4 (1982), 353-366; and , ‘Addenda...’, [History of Photography] 7:1 (1983), 163-5.   In a letter dated 16 August 1842 to Talbot’s agent, W. Awdrey (Lacock Abbey, Talbot Collection, LA42.59) Collen provided data about photographs he had taken professionally since 16 August 1841 which, he said, was the day he ‘first received payment for a calotype portrait’. He was due to pay 30% of his takings since that date to Talbot. The original agreement seems not to have survived and without it some caution is required in wholeheartedly assuming that his licence was actually obtained in August 1841. It is conceivable that he was not approached by Talbot until March 1842 but was asked to backdate his payments for portraits already taken.

(6) Larry Schaaf, ‘Henry Collen and the Treaty of Nanking’, History of Photography 6:4 (October 1982), 353-366.

(7) R. D. Wood, ‘The Treaty of Nanking: Form and the Foreign Office, 1842-1843’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History (London) 24 (May 1996), 181-196

(8) Public Record Ofice, London. Foreign Office: Protocols of Treaties (FO 93): FO 93/23/1B. English text of the Treaty of Nanking ff 2-12v, Chinese character text ff 13r-28.

(9) P. R. O., London . Foreign Office: Chief Clerk’s Department (FO 366): FO 366/280, pp 159-167. The volume in which these documents are preserved is characterised by the words on spine ‘Miscellaneous 1826-1863’ and in pencil inside ‘Accounts’.

(10) R. D. Wood (May 1996), 186-8.

(11) A. Higgins, ‘Taiwan holds lease to lost property ... Andrew Higgins reports from Taipei’, The Guardian (London) (24 June 1997), 13. Interviewed in this report are Pierre Chia (section chief of the Taiwan foreign ministry archives), Chen Chien-jen, Taiwan’s vice-minister of foreign affairs, and a 70-year old historian, Lu Shih-chiang, who was amongst those who fled from the mainland in 1949.

(12) The Times (2 January 1843), 5; Illustrated London News (14 January 1843), 19-21.

(13) The Foreign Secretary, Lord Aberdeen, in London in a dispatch dated 25 January 1843 to Sir Henry Pottinger in Hong Kong spoke of ‘the duplicate copy of the Treaty ... which was enclosed in the duplicate of your Despatch 38... The duplicate was not received until the 9th of January, after the ratified Original had been sent off.’ (Public Record Office, London. FO 17/64, ff 143-146v). The original ratified manuscript had left England for Hong Kong in the care of Lt. Colonel Malcolm on 5 January.

(14) The Oxford English Dictionary discusses Blackberry as ‘being the commonest wild fruit in England is spoken of proverbially as the type of what is plentiful and little prized’. The ‘little prized’ aspect should be noted, as well as the specific use of ‘Defects as plenty a blackberries’ in relation to technical faults in portrait painting in a note to a poem ‘Lines written on seeing a Daguerreotype portrait of a Lady’ by Elizabeth Sheridan Carey, Illustrated London News 3:28 (19 August 1843), 125.

(15) ‘Dr. A. S. Taylor (1806-1880)’, Dictionary of National Biography 60 (London: Smith Elder 1898), 402-3. S. White, ‘Alfred Swaine Taylor - a little known photographic pioneer’, History of Photography, 11 (1987), 229-35. A. S. Taylor, On the Art of Photogenic Drawing, London: Jeffrey 1840 (which according to a brief review in The Athenaeum (29 August 1840), 684, was published in August of that year). The use of Ammoniated Silver Nitrate for ‘photogenic drawing’ print-outs, was not a unique espousal of Dr. Taylor for it had been strongly recommended by Alfred Smee in the Literary Gazette (18 May 1839), 314; (25 May 1839), 332.

(16) Letter dated 6 May 1843 from Alfred Taylor to Henry Collen, in S. F. Spira collection, quoted in L. Schaaf [Addenda] (1983), 163. This letter has also been quoted by S. White [see note 15 above](1987) with two others from Taylor to Collen dated 10 April and 25 July 1842.

(17) Letter dated February 25, 1952, from Kurt L. Schwarz, dealer in ‘Rare Books and Fine Prints’, Beverly Hills, California, to B. Newhall at GEH. I am grateful to Becky Simmons, Associate Librarian of the GEH Library (where is held Henry Collen’s Album of his photographic copy of the Treaty of Nanking) for providing a copy of this letter and for her wider helpful attention to my enquires.

(18) Ch’i-ying’s memoranda to the Emperor received in Beijing, 6 August 1842. This document was first made available by photolithographic reproduction in 1930 in Ch’ing-tai - Ch’ou pan yi-Wu shih Mo [Ch’ing dynasty - Complete Record of the Management of Barbarian Affairs] Peiping: Palace Museum Photolithograph 1930, later translated into English by Pin-chia Kuo, A critical study of the First Anglo-Chinese War with documents, Shanghai: Commercial Press 1935 and reprinted Taipe: Ch’eng Wen Publishing 1970, 292-4.

(19) Larry Schaaf 1982.

(20) The label on the album is illustrated in L. Schaaf 1982, 356. Collen’s writing appears (for example) in three of his autograph letters at the Public Records Office, London (FO 366/280, ff 159-167). From other autograph letters preserved at the PRO, London, neither Pottinger’s handwriting (in ‘Original Draft of Treaty of Nanking in my own hand writing’ [signed Henry Pottinger], FO 17/57, ff 312-319), nor Lt. Colonel Malcolm’s (FO 17/60, ff 168-9) match the script on the label.

(21) The end papers of the binding of the original treaty and relevant later documents are watermarked ‘S. Evans & Co 1843’. Those of the Collen album are ‘Morbey & Saunders 1842’.

(22) Transcription of the Manchu/Chinese of the Imperial Commissioner’s Seal by courtesy of Lihua Shen, Foreign Affairs Office of the State Archives Bureau in Beijing.

(23) Articles 2 and 3 of the Treaty, on two of the pages of the photocopy album, are illustrated in fig 4 on p. 357 of the pioneering study of the Album published by Larry Schaaf in 1982, but the photographic images of the Chinese impressed seals at the bottom inner corners of these pages are so faint that they are not apparent in the printed reproduction. However direct visual examination of the album at GEH made by Larry Schaaf both before the publication of his own article on the album in 1982 and again October 1994 reveals that faint images of the edges of those Chinese seals can be detected on those and other pages of Collen’s photographic copy. Dr. Schaaf kindly communicated the last valuable observations in a letter to the author dated 19 October 1994.


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