First published in the quarterly journal History of Photography, Autumn 1993 (Vol 17, No.3, pp. 284-295), this online version appears with the kind permission of Taylor & Francis Group. London
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1. Georges Potonniées Daguerre, Peintre et Décorateur, Paris: Paul Montel 1935, is an indispensable, but unfortunately rare, monograph: the Royal Photographic Society have the only copy in England known to this writer. In more recent years research in Paris archives by Barry V. Daniels on Daguerres work in the Theatre has been published in Theatre Survey, 19 (November 1978), 174-6; 22 (May 1981), 69-90; 24 (1983), 134-8.
2. H. and A. Gernsheim, L. J. M. Daguerre: The History of the Diorama and the Daguerreotype, London 1956 and New York: Dover Publications 1968, chapters 1 and 2.
3. Quoted by Beaumont Newhall in his Introduction to facsimile reproduction of An historical and descriptive account of the daguerreotype and the diorama by Daguerre, New York: Winter House1971,10, citing Notice explicative des tableaux exposés au Diorama, Paris (1822).
4. Dates of showings at the Paris Diorama are in Georges Potonniées ‘Liste des Tableaux exposés au [Paris] Diorama de 1822 - 1839’ in his Daguerre, Peintre et Décorateur, 79-89.
5. Showings of the early dioramas at the London Diorama were reported in The Times: 27 September 1823, 1; 4 October 1823, 3; 30 August 1824, pp.1,2; 21 March 1825, 2; 21 February 1826, 4; 5 June 1827, 2; 24 March 1828, 6; 28 May 1829, 3; 22 April 1830, 2; 16 July 1832, 3.
6. The writer is grateful to Pierre Harmant and his daughter Claude-Alice for a transcript, made in 1976, of a letter in the Mentienne Collection, Archives Ville de Paris, dated 6 October 1903 to A. Mentienne (fils) from Mme Hugon-Roydor (daughter of John Arrowsmith, brother of Mme Daguerre). This valuable letter about the family states that Madame Daguerres father married twice, having seventeen children of which four (Madame Daguerre, her sister Hélène, Charles and John) were of the second marriage. Most difficult to understand is that Johns daughter states that her uncle Charles (never married but having a young daughter, Félicité, adopted by Daguerre), died young, presumably about 1822! See also A. Mentienne, La Découverte de la Photographie en 1839, Paris, 105.
7. Charles Arrowsmith (born 1798): C. Gabet, Dictionnaire des Artistes, Paris (1831), 13. E. Bènèzit, Dictionnaire des Peinteurs, Paris (1976), Vol.1, p.279. H. and A. Gernsheim, L. J. M. Daguerre: The History of the Diorama and the Daguerreotype (1968), pp.8, 22. The daguerreotype portrait reproduced by the Gernsheims (Fig 61) as possibly Charles Arrowsmith shows a painter obviously born at a later date. A more fitting identification is Pierre Harmants observation to the present writer that it is Daguerres portrait of [F. J.] Collignon, first husband of Charles Arrowsmiths daughter Félicité (see note 6).
8. Some sources (see note 7) speak of Charles, while according to documents and writings relating to Constable it was John: John Constables Correspondence IV, edited by R. B. Beckett, Ipswich: Suffolk Records Society 1966, Vol.10, 177-211, contains letters (the autograph MSS now lost) to Constable signed "Jno Arrowsmith" in June 1824 at 1 rue Grange aux belles, Paris, in October 1824 at 13 (bis) rue des Vinaigriers (and his name appears, according to Beckett, at that address in Annuaire du Commerce de Paris for 1827), and from 1827 to 1828 at Diorama, rue des Marais.
9. Bouton went to Constables house from the Regents Park Diorama on 12 August 1824 having just arrived from Paris, John Constables Correspondence IV, 188-9
10. In the Diorama patent of February 1824, the patentee John Arrowsmiths address was given as Air Street, Piccadilly. Gernsheim, L. J. M. Daguerre: The History of the Diorama and the Daguerreotype (1968), 7, identifies the Diorama patentee and Mme Daguerres brother as the cartographer (1790-1873) described in Dictionary of National Biography, London: Smith & Elder 1885, Vol.2, 125, but decisive evidence is lacking.
11. John Arrowsmith, Patent No. 4899, 10 February 1824:
An improved mode of publicly exhibiting pictures on painted scenery of every description, and of distributing or directing the daylight upon or through them so as to produce many effects of light and shade, which I denominate a Diorama.12. Exhibition of Modern Pictures: Caledonian Mercury, 19 February 1825, 1; 7 March 1825, 3.
13. Robert Brydall, History of Art in Scotland, London and Edinburgh: Blackwood 1889, 329-39.
14. The picture was exhibited from 11 January to 19 February 1825. Edinburgh Evening Courant, 10 January, 3, and 17 February 1825, 3; Caledonian Mercury,17 January, pp.1,3, and 12 February 1825, 3.
15. Liverpool Mercury,18 February 1825, p.265, p.270; 25 February 1825, 278. The Kaleidoscope (Liverpool), 22 February 1825, Vol.5, 290, 292.
16. Caledonian Mercury, 12 February 1825, 3.
17. Caledonian Mercury, 27 August 1831, 1.
18. Bristol Mercury, 29 August 1825, 3; 19 September 1825, 3; Bristol Gazette, 1 and 8 September 1825, p.3.
19. According to a reviewer in The Bristol Mirror,10 September 1825, 3d, Stanfields diorama in Bristol of Ruins of Holyrood Chapel had a "figure meditating among the ruins,with a lamp burning before her." Such a figure also appeared in Daguerres diorama (The Times (London), 21 March 1825, 2) but not in his oil painting now in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool (considered in Walker Art Gallery, Foreign Catalogue, (1977), 50).
20. Bristol Mirror, 17 September 1825, 3c.
21. Bristol Mercury, 7 November 1825, 3.
22. Bristol Mercury, 22 August 1825, 3, as well as Bristol Mirror, 20 August and Bristol Gazette, 25 August 1825.
23. I am grateful to Miss D. Dyer of the Central Library Bristol for information from the Bristol Directories for the years from 1820 to 1855. Also Directories of Bath show a Miss Girouxs residence and dancing academy at 14 George Street, Bath, from at least 1824 to 1837.
[Research by the author after the publication of this article in 1993 found that Cecilia Gertrude Giroux was born in London c.1800 and remaining unmarried died in Bristol in 1856. Presumably a George Gabriel Giroux who died in Bath in 1841 (General Register Office, index of Deaths, Bath Jan-Mar 1841, Vol 11, p. 5) was a relative. It is most likely that Cecilia was born into a family of dancers and actors in London headed by a Gabriel Giroux. He is said to have originally been ballet master at the Paris Opera, and danced at the Haymarket and some minor London theatres from 1786. Some information on this Giroux family at the Sans Pareil theatre in London (it was renamed the Adelphi in 1819) during the period 1807 to 1813 written by John Brokaw and Frank McHugh as part of the Adelphi Calendar Project 1806-1900 is provided online at www.emich.edu/public/english/adelphi_calendar/hst1807.htm as well as other pages concerning the Sans Pareil/Adelphi theatre in the seasons of 1807-8, 1812, 1818 and 1823. Brokaw and McHugh also say that Gabriel and his children appeared regularly at the Royal Circus in London for several seasons before going to the Sans Pareil in 1807. Five of Gabriels daughters danced and acted at this new theatre in 1807 and in a five-week season in November and December 1812, their names being Miss C.; Miss Caroline; Miss F.; Miss Jane; and Miss Louisa]
24. For Alphonse Girouxs daguerreotype contract in 1839 with Daguerre see H and A Gernsheim, L. J. M. Daguerre: The History of the Diorama and the Daguerreotype, London 1958, 189-191 and R. Derek Wood, Ste Croix in London, History of Photography, 17:1 (Spring 1993), 101-7. Because of the English Daguerreotype patent, the situation in England regarding Girouxs rights to sell Daguerreotype cameras is complicated. Article 2 of the contract stated Giroux et Cie were the only persons authorized to sell or manufacture in France and abroad and Daguerre undertook (at the time when the contract was signed, before the patent was obtained) "not to deliver abroad, with the exception of England". Even so Giroux did supply orders from England in 1839.
25. John Arrowsmith, Patent No. 4899, 10 February 1824.
“I consider the claim of invention to consist in the employment of coloured transparent moveable blinds or curtains which are adapted to distribute or direct the daylight upon or through pictures or painted scenery...; at the same time I wish it to be observed, that the claim of invention is not considered to extend to the use of the revolving saloon generally, but only when the same is used in combination with the aforesaid”.26. Pieter van der Merwe and Roger Tooke, The Spectacular Career of Clarkson Stanfield 1793-1867 (Exhibition catalogue), Sunderland: Tyne and Wear Council Museums 1979.
27. James Ballantine, The Life of David Roberts, R.A., Edinburgh 1866. Katherine Sim, David Roberts R.A., 1796-1864: A Biography, London: Quartet Books 1984.
28. According to Sybil Rosenfeld, Georgian Scene Painters and Scene Painting, Cambridge: CUP 1981, 157-161, the Royalty theatre in Whitechapel close to London Dock, had taken up the fashion for "dioramas" with the display of two scenes: Trinity Chapel of Canterbury Cathedral and Valley of Sarren [sic] (same titles as Daguerre and Boutons tableaux that opened the Regents Park Diorama in September 1823) painted by P. Phillips and T. Pitt. There is no exact dating but probably 1825 as this theatre burnt down on 11 April 1826. These two scene and panorama painters worked at same theatres as Stanfield. The Royalty was a "Sailors theatre", so conceivably could have easy contact with Bristol.
29. Mss of David Roberts exists at the National Library of Scotland, but his second journal covering the period of interest has not survived. Roberts diary and Record of Pictures 1829  to 1864 compiled by him in later life, a photocopy of which is held at the Guildhall Library, London, also lacks information about 1825.
30. The Times, 16 February, 1826, 1a; 17 February 1826, 3e. Poecilorama, Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, Catalogue, 1826, London, 1826 (Pamphlet 17272 at Guildhall Library, London). Stanfields pictures were Holy Island or Lindisfarne, two of Castle of Chillon,City of Rouen,Netley Abbey and Turin.
31. Unlike Stanfields earlier Poecilarama, the British Diorama pictures were large - 38 x 27 feet, but still one-third the area of Daguerres dioramas . Four views by Stanfield and four by Roberts were done, all destroyed by fire on 27 May 1829. see Ballantine, The Life of David Roberts, 28, 33; The Times, 28 May 1829, 3b; Ralph Hyde and Pieter van der Merwe, The Queens Bazaar, Theatrephile, No. 8, Autumn 1985 [published 1987], 10-15.
32. The Times, 18 October 1823, 3; 1 April 1824, 2; 14 April 1824, 3. Roberts exhibited View of Notre Dame, Rouen at the second exhibition reported in The Times, 28 March 1825, 5.
33. H and A Gernsheim, L. J. M. Daguerre: The History of the Diorama and the Daguerreotype, 27-8. The King also took an interest in the Diorama in Paris. Mme Daguerres Arrowsmith family were also not unfamilar with the French Royal family: According to a letter dated 6 Oct.ober 1903 from the daughter of John Arrowsmith (Mme Hugon-Roydor) to A. Mentienne (fils) in the Mentienne Archive (transcript see note 6) her grandfather (ie. Mme Daguerres father) had been a steward to a brother of Louis-Philippe.
34. The Times, 22 April 1830, 2e: review of Boutons Cathedral of Rheims and Daguerres Mount St.Gothard at the London Diorama.
35. Trevor Fawcett, The Rise of English Provincial Art...1800-1830, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1974, 156-8.
36. Manchester Courier, 2 April 1825, p.2.
37. Manchester Gazette, Saturday, 9 April 1825, 3
38. Manchester Courier, Saturday, 22 October, 1825, advertisement on p.2, and review p.3.
39. Dates of the showings of four dioramas in Manchester (see Figure 1) are compiled from The Manchester Courier, 2 April 1825, 2; 8 October 1825,; 22 October 1825, 2; 28 October 1826, 1; 18 November 1826, 1; 31 March 1827, 2; 14 April 1827, 1; 1 December 1827.
40. Manchester Courier, 8 December 1827, 1
41. Manchester and Salford Directory for 1828.
42. Liverpool Mercury, Friday, 18 February 1825, advertisement on p.265 with an editorial comment p.270.
43. Liverpool Mercury, Friday, 25 February 1825, 278.
44. The Kaleidoscope, Tuesday, 1 March 1825, Vol.5, 300
45. Liverpool Mercury, Friday, 17 June 1825, 401; and similar advertisement in The Kaleidoscope, Tuesday, 21 June 1825, Vol.5, page B428.
46. The Kaleidoscope, 14 June 1825, Vol.5, 420.
47. Liverpool Mercury, 17 June 1825, 408: The Kaleidoscope, 21 June 1825, Vol.5, 432
48. Letter dated 23 June 1825, Liverpool Mercury, 24 June 1825, 416 and The Kaleidoscope, 28 June 1825, Vol. 5, 440
49. For example a long description in the advertisements of Village of Unterseen,the last diorama shown in Liverpool during 1832: Liverpool Mercury, 17 February 1832, 49.
50. Dates of the showings of dioramas in Liverpool (see Figure 1) are compiled from the Liverpool Mercury, 18 February 1825, pp.265,270; 30 September 1825, 97; 14 October 1825, 112; 10 March 1826, 279; 24 March 1826, pp.297, 304; 14 April 1826, 326; 9 March 1827, 73; 6 April 1827, 105; 7 March 1828, 77; 25 April 1828, 129; 29 May 1829, 169; 26 June 1829, 201; 26 March 1830, 97; 14 May 1830, 153; 11 March 1831, 73; 27 May 1831, 161; 6 January 1832, 1; 27 January 1832, 29; 5 October 1832, 317.
51. A good example of such excess is found in a description by the German man of the theatre, August Lewald, of Daguerres exhibition in Paris throughout 1832 and 1833 of Valley of Chamonix: J. M. Eder, History of Photography, 4th edition translated into English by E. Epstean, New York: Dover Publications 1978, 211-14, and see also H and A Gernsheim, L. J. M. Daguerre., 30-3.
52. Advertisement in Liverpool Mercury, 26 June 1829, 201. A review of Rouen while in London appeared in The Times, 21 February 1826, 4f
53. Other Cosmoramas shown at Liverpool include the South Front of Rouen Cathedral, Rouens Palace of Justice , and Christchurch, Oxford.
54. See Figure 64 of Richard D. Alticks The Shows of London, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U.P. 1978, 210-13.
55. Liverpool Mercury, 8 October 1830, 321.
56. Obituary of Egerton Smith (1774-1841), Liverpool Mercury, 26 November 1841, 396. Co-patentee for tuning musical instrument - Patent No.2512 (1801) and Improvements to ships binnacles -Patent No.3265 (1809); and in the 1820s a musical time-beater and a cork neck collar for swimmers.
57. John Smith may have been co-editor of the Liverpool Mercury with Egerton Smith. He was author of A key to Reading (1830), Anatomy of Numbers, (1838), A guide to Bangor, Beaumaris, and Snowdonia (1833).
58. Liverpool Mercury, 5 October 1832, 313; 12 October 1832, 328
59. William Dolier and John Smith, Patent No.6182 (1831).
60. Liverpool Mercury, 5 October 1832, 313.
61. Liverpool Chronicle, 15 September 1832, p.1, p5; 6 October 1832, 1. The views were St.Valentines Chapel, Milan; Baths of Lucca, Italy; and Plymouth. G. Tyler is unknown.
62. Map of Manchester in Pigots General Directory of Manchester, Salford, &c., for 1829. In an earlier map of 1824/5 this small area on the west of St.Peters is undeveloped, and the next map available in the Directory for 1836 shows the relevant street block (bounded by Cooper Street/Bootle Street/Mount Street/and Dickinson Street) without the Diorama building. Diorama is not listed as a name entry in the Directories of 1824/5, 1828, but the 1829 Directory has an appendix Street Directory showing three entries at 10 Dickinson Street: a stone mason, Diorama, and a calico printer and manufacture. [The site is now in the 1990s occupied by the Central Library]
63. Liverpool Mercury, 18 February 1825, 270c.
64. T. Kaye, The Stranger in Liverpool, Liverpool: 1825, 8th edition , 189. The same text also appears in the ninth edition of 1829: the author would like to thank Miss E. Organ of the Liverpool Record Office for pointing out the inclusion of the Diorama on the map in the ninth edition. Although a short six-line entry refering to the Diorama building appears in the 1834 (10th) edition, no information is given about any exhibition as in the previous two issues of the guidebook.
65. Advertisement in many issues of the Liverpool Mercury between 8 October 1830, Vol.20, 321 and 11 March 1831, Vol.21, 73
66. Liverpool Mercury, advertisements, 6 March 1829, 73 and 6 January 1832, 1
67. The opening of the London Diorama was reviewed in Ackermanns Repository of Arts, Literature, Fashions, 1 November 1823, Vol. 2 (third series), 302-5, with a comment We trust that Mr Smith, the proprietor, will reap the profit to which so heavy a speculation and so great an improvement entitle him. With regard to the people involved in building the Diorama in London, an article by J. B. Papworth in John Britton and Augustus Pugins Illustrations of the Public Buildings of London, London:1825, Vol.1, 66-70 (published in parts during 1823 and 1824), was quoted in Somerset House Gazette, 20 December, 1823: The Diorama having been exhibited with success at Paris, Mr. Smith, an English resident there, undertook to establish a similar exhibition in London, and Mr. [Augustus] Pugin was employed by him to visit France, and inspect the building.
67bis.Regarding Jacob Smith :
(a) Parliamentary Papers 1780-1849, Vol. 14 (1826): Fifth triennial Report of the Commissioners of His Majestys Woods, Forests and Land Revenues. Dated 6th May 1826. Session [from] 2 February to 31 May 1826, In a Table of Leases of the Marylebone Park Estate on pp. 72-73, a lease of 99 years from 5 July 1823 is granted to Jacob Smith on Three Plots of Ground to the East side of Park-square, with three Messuages and other Buildings thereon [i.e. the Diorama building].
(b) Notices in the London Gazette on bankruptcy from July 1828 of Jacob Smith, now or late of the Diorama, Regents-Park, in the County of Middlesex, and of the City of Paris, in the Kingdom of France, Printer, Dealer and Chapman: London Gazette, [Issue] Nr. 18489, Tuesday 22 July 1828, p.1428; 5 Aug 1828, Nr.18493, p.1502 ; 29 Aug 1828, Nr.18500, pp.1641 and 1642 ; 28 Nov 1828, Nr.18527, p.2218 ; Friday 6 March 1829, Nr.18556, p. 433.
[This footnote 67bis was not in the original published article of 1993 but added after later research to this online version only]
68. Dominique Albert and Egerton Smith, Homonymous Française; or the French homonymous words arranged in sentences, London: Whitaker 1831.
69. DIORAMA, BOLD STREET, LIVERPOOL. A View, 80 FEET BY 50, OF TRINITY CHAPEL IN Canterbury Cathedral. LIVERPOOL. 1825. Rushton and Melling, Printers, Liverpool. pp.16, Octavo. Only known copy in Liverpool Record Office:Ref.069.422 DIO. A copy in the British Museum, shelf-mark at 7856aaa40, was destroyed by bombing in World War II.
70. DIORAMA, COOPER-STREET, MANCHESTER. A VIEW, EIGHTY FEET BY FIFTY, OF THE VALLEY OF SARNEN IN SWITZERLAND. Manchester: Printed by T. Sowler, Courier Office. nd [March or April 1825] pp.15, Octavo. Pages 4 to 7 and a schematic key gives a topographical description of the Valley of Sarnen, pp.7-10 provides a background to the Diorama enterprise, and pp.11-15 appends extracts from newspaper reviews when the London Diorama opened eighteen months earlier. Only known copy at Local Studies Collection, Central Library, Manchester: Tracts S+A 285/6. This writer is grateful to Margaret De Motte (Librarian, Local Studies Unit, Manchester Central Library) for help in finding this brochure.
71. Manchester Courier, 9 April 1825, 3: some English gentlemen, then in the French capital, (one of whom has distinguished himself as the author of one of the most popular works of the day), contracted for their purchase.
72. Ralph Hyde, Panoramania, Exhibition Catalogue, London: Barbican Art Gallery 1988, 113.
73. Scott B. Wilcox, The Panorama and Related Exhibitions in London, unpublished M. Litt. thesis, Edinburgh University, 1976, 97-8
74. The Freemans Journal (Dublin), 21 March 1826, 2; 8 April 1828; 1; 19 April 1828, pp.1,3. Dublin Evening Post, 21 March 1826, 3; 19 October1826, 2; 23 December 1826, 2; 7 March 1827, 3; 26 July 1827; 16 December 1828, 2.
75. The Freemans Journal, (Dublin), 19 April 1828, 3.
76. Dublin Evening Post, Saturday, 23 December 1826, 2b
77. The author thanks Maire Kennedy, Librarian, Dublin and Irish Collections, The Gilbert Library, Pearse Street, Dublin, for information and copies of maps on Great Brunswick/Pearse Street and for her attention and interest in identifying the site of the Dublin Diorama.
78. Letter (transcript, see note 6) in the Archives of the Ville de Paris dated 6 Oct.,1903 to A. Mentienne (fils) in which Mme Hugon-Roydor (daughter of John Arrowsmith, brother of Mme Daguerre) says Le père de ma mère y était intendant du vice-roi dIrlande, quoique français.
79. Liverpool Mercury, 6 April 1827, Vol.17, 105.
80. Caledonian Mercury, 12 July 1828, 1.
81. Caledonian Mercury, 19 May 1831, 1; 30 July 1831, 1; 8 August 1831, 1.
82. Caledonian Mercury, 13 December 1827, pp.1, 3; Edinburgh Weekly Journal, 12 December 1827, 398.
83. Caledonian Mercury, 15 June 1829, 3.
84. The writer would like to thank the staff of Information Services, Central Library, Edinburgh, for providing a copy of the engraving of the Lothian Road Diorama from Edinburgh and Leith Post Office Directory for 1835-36, reproduced here by courtesy of Edinburgh City Libraries.
85. Dates of the showings of dioramas in Edinburgh (see Figure 1) are compiled from Caledonian Mercury, 13 December 1827, pp. 1, 3; 14 June 1828, 1; 12 July 1828, 1; 30 May 1829, 1; 15 June 1829, pp. 1,3; 22 May 1830, 1; 12 June 1830, pp. 1,3; 19 May 1831, 1; 8 August 1831, 1; 27 August 1831, pp. 1,3; 24 May 1832, 1; 29 December 1832, 1; 22 June 1833, pp.1,3; 14 July 1834, 1; 4 August 1834, pp.1,3; 28 March 1835, 1; 18 April 1835, 1; 24 October 1835, 1; 14 November 1835, pp.1, 3; 29 October 1836, 1; 19 November 1836, pp. 1,3; 4 Dec.1837, 1; 11 January 1838, 1; 7 April 1838, 1; 26 May 1838, 1; 30 March 1839, 1; 3 June 1839, 1. No advertisements in 1840. The advertisements were less descriptive than those placed very regularly in Manchester and Liverpool newspapers.
86. Edinburgh Weekly Journal, 12 December 1827, Vol.30, 398
87. Caledonian Mercury, 15 June 1829, 3.
88. Caledonian Mercury, 14 March 1839, 2; 30 March 1839, 3. This report obviously depends on a briefing from the Diorama management, and it concludes with a little advertising plug: In the mean time, the public, no doubt will avail themselves of the opportunity yet afforded in Edinburgh of seeing such of these admirable specimens of pictorial and mechanical skill as remains for exhibition .
89. Caledonian Mercury, 30 March, 1; 25 May, 1; 3 June 1839, 1.
90. R. Derek Wood, Daguerre and his Diorama in the 1830s: some financial announcements, in Photoresearcher (Journal of the European Society for the History of Photography), No.5 (1993), in press. [However, in the event, the publication of this journal was delayed until 1997 ! - Issue No. 6, pp. 35-40]
91. Ralph Hyde and Pieter van der Merwe, The Queens Bazaar [British Diorama], Theatrephile, Issue No.8 (Autumn 1985, published 1987), 10-15. Description of the Views of the British Diorama and Physiorama exhibition at the Queens Bazaar, London: Nichols 1832, the only known copy is Pamphlet 5555 at Guildhall Library, City of London.
92. LIllustration, Journal Universel, 2 (30 Septembre 1843), 72.
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