An account of Astronomical Photography in 1862:
annotated by R. D. Wood (online February 2007)

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, February 14, 1862, Vol. xxii, No. 4, pp. 131-9 [1]
 

Address delivered by the President, Dr. [John] Lee, on presenting the Gold Medal of the Society to Mr. Warren De La Rue

  Gentlemen,- In the report which has just been read to you, you have been informed that the Council have assigned the Gold medal of the Society to our worthy Secretary, Mr. Warren De La Rue; and as it is the custom, it becomes now my duty to explain, in a few words, the grounds of their decision.

  [click here to skip the following first paragraphs of general introductory remarks]

  You know that for many years Mr. De La Rue has devoted the energies of his mind, a large expenditure, and such leisure as he could abstract from the complicated cares of an extensive and well-known commercial concern, to the earnest cultivation and systematic pursuit of practical astronomy, and that he has been one of the most frequent contributors to our evening meetings, upon a variety of subjects — all requiring much knowledge, skill, and labour in their treatment.
  Discoveries in the regions of science so crowd upon us in our own times, that valuable inventions and striking results soon fade from the memory, and are lost in the brilliancy of those which rapidly succeed them.
  I must therefore request your indulgence whilst I lay before you what it is that Mr. De La Rue has done to entitle him to receive, and which justifies the council in awarding him the highest honour that it is in the power of the Royal Astronomical Society to bestow.
  Mr. De La Rue has not only conducted the usual observations which are made at most private observatories, but he has directed the resources of a rare mechanical genius to improvements in the most approved methods of polishing the specula of reflecting telescopes, and perfecting the mechanical arrangements by which operations of such refined nicety are performed.
  On this subject there can be no higher authority than Sir John Herschel, who, in an article on the telescope, published in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, says:
  “Such is Mr. De La Rue's mechanism, which has afforded very admirable results in the production of specula 13 inches in aperture and 10 feet focal length, the perfection of which is enhanced by his practice of bestowing the same care and precision on every step of figuring of the speculum, from the grinding, the smoothing on a bed of hones, or rather a slab of slate cut into squares, carefully brought to the same figure, and to the figuring of the polisher itself, which being thus previously rendered almost perfect, the speculum is saved the rough work of having to figure the polisher for itself on every occasion of repolishing.”
  In a more private communication to myself on the same subject, Sir John adds that “Mr. De La Rue's machinery, though grounded on Mr. Lassell's rotary principle, is by no means a servile imitation of Mr. Lassell, inasmuch as several distinct improvements have been introduced tending to distribute the polishing action more equally over the whole surface of the metal. One of these improvements consists in his interposition of a plate between the supporting plate and sliding plate of Mr. Lassell's traversing slide, which, being made to revolve, causes the traversing movement of the speculum to take place, not across the same diameter of its area, but at every stroke across a different diameter ; and he also obviates the irregularity of the motion of Mr. Lassell's polisher on its centre, by governing that rotation by mechanism, instead of leaving it to be determined by the excess of external over internal friction.”

  But it is in Celestial Photography that Mr. De La Rue has made his most important discoveries, and displayed an unfailing fertility of mechanical invention. Wisely acknowledging the growing vastness of the several departments of the same science, he has latterly, in a great measure, restricted his researches to the delineation of the various aspects of the heavenly bodies, through the medium of Photography.
  It is only by acknowledging and adopting the principle of the division of labour that great results can be obtained, either in the pursuits of commercial industry or abstract science.  The days of the Admirable Crichton have long since passed away.  Indeed Lord Bacon himself, in the Novum Organum, well observes, in anticipation of the influence of this general principle:—   “ Then men shall begin to find out their own powers, when all will not essay to do the same things, but each man will employ himself in the work for which he is most apt.” * ( * “Tum enim homines, vires suas nosse incipient, cum non eadem infiniti, sed alia alii præstabunt.”— Liber 1, Aphor. cxiii.)

  Mr. De La Rue's claim to the special notice of astronomers, as a delineator of celestial objects through the medium of photography, does not rest on the absolute priority of his application of a well-known art in a new direction. It is rather based on the fact, that by methods and adaptations peculiarly his own, he has been the first to obtain automatic pictures of the Sun and Moon, sufficiently delicate in their detail to advance our knowledge regarding the physical characters of those bodies, and admitting of measurements astronomically precise.
  The late Mr. Bond, of Cambridge, in the United States, in the year 1845, with the assistance of Messrs. Whipple and Bond, obtained good pictures of α [alpha] Lyræ and of Castor; and that, in this year, Signer De Vico made an unsuccessful attempt to photograph the nebulae in Orion.
  At about the same time, or a little later, the Rev. J. B. Reade took photographs of α Lyræ at my Observatory at Hartwell, [2] and at his own Observatory at the Vicarage of Stone. [3]
  Mr. Glaisher, writing, in 1851, as Reporter upon Philosophical Instruments in the Great Exhibition, Class X., and upon Mr. Bond's Daguerreotype of the Moon, taken in 1850, and which was placed in the Exhibition of 1851, says upon Photography, — “Let us now view Photography in its application to science: a process by which transient actions are rendered permanent, and which enables Nature to do her own work — or, in other words, which causes facts permanently to record themselves — is too well fitted for the purpose of science to be long overlooked; but the difficulties to be overcome in its application have been and still are great, and the results proportionably few in number. We consider, however, that the commencement of a systematic application of the photographic process to the purposes of Astronomy is indicated by the daguerreotype of the Moon by Mr. Whipple [4] ; and great indeed will be the benefit conferred upon astronomical science when we obtain permanent representations of the celestial bodies and their relative positions through the agency of light.”
  Enlarged copies of Mr. Bond's photographs were laid before the Royal Astronomical Society in May of the same year. At the Meeting of the British Association of Science held at Ipswich in July 1851, under the Presidency of the learned Astronomer Royal, a daguerreotype of the Moon was shown to the members of the Mathematical Section by Mr. Bond; [5]  and his Royal Highness the Prince Consort, whose loss we now deeply deplore, was present on the occasion, and inspected the daguerreotype.
  On the subject of the connexion of Photography and Chemistry with Astronomy, some interesting remarks appear in the admirable Lecture on the Sun, delivered by the respected Professor Walker before the British Association of Science under the Presidency of our esteemed Member Lord Wrottesley, in 1860, at Oxford.
  There are several references to Celestial Photography in the various volumes of the Comptes Rendus, which can only be brought to your notice in the form of notes.*

* 1849.—Vol. xixviii, p. 241. " On the Observations of the Sun." By M. Faye.   1858.—Vol. xlv, p. 705 and following pages. " On the Photographs of the Eclipse of March 15, by MM. Porro and Quinet." By M. Faye.   1859.—Vol. xlviii, p. 174. " Report on a Memoir addressed by M. Liais on the occasion of the Total Eclipse of 1858, September 7."   1859.—Vol. xlix. " Second Memoir on the coming Eclipse of 18 July." 1860.—Vol.li, p. 965. "On the State of Astronomical Photography in France."   1861.—Vol. liii, p. 997. " On the Perfecting Meridional Observations of the Sun without an Observer." By M. Faye.   1861.—Vol.liv, pp. 43 to 159. " On Photographs of the Sun, taken by M. Belfort during the Eclipse of the 31st December last."

  It was the sight of these very promising daguerreotypes of Mr. Bond which, in 1851, first gave the impulse to Mr. De La Rue's labours in this direction. In 1852 he availed himself of the collodion process invented by Mr. Archer in the preceding year, and succeeded in obtaining a good picture of the Moon. In 1853 Professor Phillips obtained talbotypes of the Moon at York. In 1854 lunar photographs were secured at Liverpool under the supervision of our respected member Mr. Hartnup. In 1855 the Rev. J. B. Reade, who has distinguished himself by his discoveries in photography, obtained special notice and honourable mention at the Paris Exhibition for his photograph of the Moon.  [6]  Others, also, have been taken, at Rome by Signer Padre Secchi, at Brighton by Mr. Fry, and in the vicinity of London by Mr. Huggins. All these photographs possess merits of their own, and give decided promise of future and greater success.
  Admiral Smyth, in the Speculum Hartwellianum, pp. 249-50 and 285, speaks of Mr. Bond's labour in Celestial Photography, particularly pointing out that, in 1857, a photograph was sent to the Astronomer Royal taking in the whole field between Mizar and Alcor, with such exactitude as to show their angles of positions and distances. Mr. De La Rue's success in obtaining photographic pictures of the Moon possessing great sharpness of definition and accuracy of detail is owing to the happy combination of a variety of causes. Possessing a large mirror of such exquisite defining power that but few existing telescopes equal it in accuracy of definition, and brought into figure by his own hands, and by peculiar machinery of his own contrivance, he was at once freed from those imperfections in the actinic image which are of necessity inherent in the very best refractors, even when corrected most accurately for chromatic dispersion.
  Mr. De La Rue at first had no clock-work apparatus to govern the motion of his telescope, and, after making several successful lunar photographs with the aid of the hand-gear of the telescope, he discontinued his selenographical experiments until he had removed from Canonbury to Cranford — a change of residence which, for the interests of Astronomy, he had for some time previously in contemplation. He then furnished his telescope — his own in a double sense — with a clock-work apparatus, which from time to time has passed through numerous alterations, and which is still in course of improvement. The mechanical problem before him, as the Fellows of this Society well know, was one of extreme complexity ; for not only must the motion of the clock-work be perfectly smooth and equable, but it must also be capable of acceleration and retardation, to keep pace, so to speak, with the ever-varying velocity of the Moon in the heavens — a variation compounded of its diurnal motion and its ever-changing velocity in its orbit.
  Lastly, by a rare and happy combination of chemical with mechanical skill, the time necessary for the exposure of the collodion film was materially shortened. The final result is this, — that images of the Moon have been repeatedly taken in the focus of the mirror, admitting of very considerable amplification, and exhibiting details on the Moon's surface sufficiently clear to admit of delineation under a microscope provided with a camera lucida, and thereby furnishing materials for a more accurate selenography than has heretofore existed.
  Neither must we altogether omit that by stereoscopically combining images of the moon, taken in different phases of her librations, more particularly enlarged copies, eight inches in diameter, Mr. De la Rue has brought to light details of dykes, terraces, and farrows, and undulation on the lunar surface, of which no certain knowledge had previously existed, and which I have had the exquisite pleasure of beholding in his observatory at Cranford.

      “Man looks aloft, and, with erected eyes,
      Beholds his own hereditary skies.”

  I must now turn to a department in celestial photography, where Mr. De La Rue stands almost alone. I speak of Heliography. In April, 1854. Sir John Herschel, in a letter to Colonel Sabine, recommended that daily photographic records of the sun should be obtained at some observatory. Accordingly the Royal Society placed at the disposal of the Kew committee a sum of money to promote that object, and Air. De La Rue was requested to administer the grant.
  It becomes necessary to mention that Arago, in his elegant and popular work on astronomy, translated by two eminent fellows of our society, states that MM. Fizeau and Foucault, in 1845, obtained a photographic image of the sun, and two spots on its disk, delineated with much apparent sharpness and accuracy; but, however this may be, *

[footnote at bottom of page 136]
* Respecting this photography of the sun, the index of the Comptes Rendus has been searched all through, under the heads of Arago, Photography, Soleil, Fizeau, Foucault, Daguerreotype, and Faye, and no mention has heen found whatever of the sun's picture in 1845 ; and there has not been found any reference to it, excepting the plate in the body of the original work itself.

it is certain that no uniformly successful method of taking images of the sun had been devised until Mr. De La Rue took up the problem for investigation.
  Yet great as had been the difficulties in obtaining a really accurate and available picture of the moon they sink into insignificance when compared with those which had to be overcome in the photography of the sun; for to obtain any automatic pictures of the sun's photosphere available for practical purposes it was found necessary to institute a series of preliminary experiments before actual operations could be successfully commenced. At first nothing but burnt up and solarized pictures could be obtained by any method that had hitherto been devised, or with any the least sensitive of the media that could be procured. Now, with the help of the Kew photoheliograph, as devised by him, and described in vol. xv of the Monthly Notices, heliography is the easiest and simplest kind of astronomical photography. The method devised by Mr. De La Rue will enable any photographer of common average skill to take excellent heliographs. Professor Selwyn, of Cambridge, succeeds in getting good pictures of the sun with the apparatus made for him by Mr. Dalmeyer, after the pattern of the Kew photoheliograph.
  Mr. De La Rue announced at the last Meeting of the Society, that by applying the stereoscope to the examination of the Sun's disk, as he had formerly done in the case of the Moon, he had discovered that the faculæ on the surface of the Sun are to be found in the outer or highest regions of the solar photosphere.
  I ought not to conclude without alluding to Mr. De La Rue's observations on the Solar Eclipse of 1860; but it must not be forgotten that one Daguerreotype picture was taken by Dr. Busch of the Solar Eclipse in 1851, and of the Solar Eclipse in 1860 four small pictures were also taken during the totality by Professor Monserrat under the direction of MM. Aguilar and Secchi at Desierto de las Palmas, in Spain.
  Mr. De La Rue, during the progress of the same eclipse, took many large and exquisitely defined pictures, and secured two during the totality. I have no need to enter into details, as he has already described at several meetings of this Society, the numerical results that follow from the discussion, and the comparisons of the photographs which he took on that occasion. A paper, giving the result of his labours during the expedition to Rivabellosa, has been presented to the Royal Society, and is to be considered in March of this year.
  Mr. De La Rue has invented an ingenious micrometer, lately exhibited at one of our Meetings, by means of which he fully confirms the hypothesis, that the coloured protuberances belong to the Sun, and renders it almost certain that the commonly received diameters both of the Sun and Moon require a correction.
  More recently still, photographic pictures of the Sun have been obtained by Mr. De La Rue, not only exhibiting its well-known mottled appearance, but showing traces of Mr. Nasmyth's “willow leaves,” and by the aid of stereoscopic pictures rendering it certain that the faculæ are elevations in the Sun's photosphere.
  I need not enlarge on the wonderful discoveries which have been made and the astonishing results that have been obtained by Newton and his successors in this, the most fertile and exact of all the applied mathematical sciences. Neither would it become me, an humble but zealous worshipper of science, to hazard conjectures as to the future progress of Astronomy. And yet I cannot refrain from expressing my belief that the success already achieved by our friend warrants us in entertaining the hope that before long he will be able, with the aid of stereoscopic pictures, to exhibit to us the rose-coloured prominences depicted on the sensitive plates as plainly as the faculæ have already been photographed. The depths and the successive strata of those strange interlacing outliers within the solar spots may be brought into tangible view. The different planes of Saturn's rings *

* If the subject of the present address were not now of necessity confined to improve ments in celestial photography, I should here refer at some length to those exquisite and unequalled hand-drawings by Mr. De La Rue, of Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, and the comet of 1858, which have so often delighted and informed our society. They have embodied with micrometrical accuracy the results of years of scrupulous and skilful labour; and. as an instance of the reliable nature of the results obtained, I may mention that, by placing under the stereoscope two of Mr. De La Rue's hand-drawings of Saturn, taken at two distant periods, the inclinations of the planes of the rings alluded to in the text become unmistakably apparent.

will also come into relief, the belts of Jupiter may be manifested as portions of his dark body, and ere long the mountains and elevated continents of Mars will rise up into solidity before our delighted gaze.
  I may also, perhaps, be permitted to remark, that while our great national and public observatories — indeed, I ought to say those of the civilized world as well — are day by day adding to that enduring record of the transient phenomena of the heavens which will enable future ages to reach the final finish and last perfection in the calculation of the tables of the motions of the moon and the planets, to eliminate any element of error, however minute, and to detect any latent disturbing force, however feeble its effect; yet it is to private observatories and to observations made in the remoter regions of starry space that we are chiefly to look for new discoveries. It augurs well for the future that there is no lack in our own day of such establishments, or of accomplished observers to use them. It is almost, if not altogether, needless to bring before you the names of Admiral Smyth, or Lord Rosse, or Mr. Lassell, or Lord Wrottesley, or Mr. Dawes, or Mr. Carrington, and a host of others familiar to many of you. The elliptic motions of binary stars round their common centre of gravity, the colours of others, the discovery of new planets, the calculation of cometary orbits, the laws of change in the variable stars, the sudden burst upon the sight of some stars, and the gradual evanescence of others, will afford for many generations suitable and exhaustless subjects of sustained astronomical research. The instant splendour and gradual decay of certain stars is one of the most wonderful facts recorded in the history of astronomy. In 1572, Cornelius Gemma observed a star in the chair of Cassiopeia, transcending Venus herself in brightness. It was Hipparchus who first, I believe, noticed the sudden appearance of a star of singular brilliancy before unknown. By this strange discovery he was urged to construct a catalogue of stars visible to the naked eye, “that posterity might know whether time had altered the face of the heavens.”
  The art of photography is of the very highest importance in the promotion of exact science.
  It stereotypes, so to speak, for the use of all time to come, the present aspect of the heavens.
  As astronomical observations ranged in tables record the present positions of the heavenly bodies, so photography registers their present aspect. It may be that the pictures of the sun now taken will enable future ages to test the prediction of the poet,

     “The stars shall fade away, the sun himself
      Grow dim with age, and nature sink in years.”

  If, then, we take collective note of all Mr. De La Rue's long and varied labors since the 14th March, 1851, when he became one of our members — such as the perfecting of the figures of mirrors, the graphic observations of the planets, the incomparable photographs of the moon, the invention of the photoheliograph, the observations on the solar eclipse, the invention of the new method of obtaining numerical data, the application of the stereoscope to the examination of the surface of the moon, and afterwards to that of the sun — sure am I that the society at large will unanimously approve of the award of their medal made by the council.
  It may, however, be said by some ingenious critic that photography is only an art which bears but indirectly on the promotion of astronomy, and that the reward of its suceessful manipulation is rather the province of those societies to confer which cultivate the art of photography, or the science of chemistry. But I cannot admit the justice of this view. What should we now say of the early fellows of the Royal Society, if they had relegated Newton, when he invented the telescope that bears his name, to the Company of Spectacle Makers for his need of praise? What should we now think, had the barren honours which grace scientific discovery been denied to such mechanical inventors as Hadley, or Dollond, or Sir William Herschel, or Lord Rosse, or Lassell?  With them the name of De La Rue, I feel, will hold no inferior place.

  The President, then delivering the medal to Mr. De La Rue, addressed him in the following terms:
  Mr. DE LA RUE: In compliance with a resolution of the council, I have the pleasing duty of placing in your hands the highest tribute to merit which they have in their power to bestow. The instruments made or improved by you, the important uses to which you have applied them, and the liberality with which you have communicated the results of your discoveries to the public, all indicate, in the opinion of the council, a mind highly cultivated, whose energy has been directed, during many years, to the attainment of scientific perfection.
  But your unceasing efforts and delicate manipulation in reducing the new and wonderful art of photography to astronomical purposes, and in rendering chemistry a handmaid to astronomy, supply the more immediate motive of their approbation.
  May Divine Providence continue to bestow upon you health and intelligence, and every social blessing, enabling you still further lo illustrate the glory of the Creator, and to promote the rational enjoyment of our fellow-creatures.


Notes by R. D. Wood

There are authoritive short biographies in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press 2004, of many of the English Astronomers mentioned by John Lee in his address to the Royal Astronomical Society in February 1862 - for example 'Glaisher, James (1809-1903), astronomer and meteorologist', by H. P. Hollis, revised by J. Tucker; 'Hartnup, John Chapman (1806–1885), astronomer', by Robert W. Smith; 'Lee (formerly Fiott), John (1783–1866), antiquary and astronomer' by Anita McConnell; 'Reade, Joseph Bancroft (1801–1870), microscopist and experimenter in photography' by R. D. Wood; 'Rue, Warren de la (1815–1889), chemist and astronomer' by P. J. Hartog revised by A. J. Meadows.

1.  [This Presidential address in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, February 14, 1862, Vol. xxii, No. 4, pp. 131-9, was also reprinted in full with a heading of 'Progress of Astronomical Photography' in the 16th Annual Report ... of the Smithsonian Institution ... for the year 1861 (Washington 1862), General Appendix, pp. 191-8.]

2.  'Rev. G. D. Reade' [sic.] [Authorship is uncertain, probably by John Lee of Hartwell House], 'Account of the Observatory at Hartwell House, by the Rev. G. D. [sic] Reade, was read at the last meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society by Dr. Lee', Bucks Advertiser and Aylesbury News, 12 August 1854, Vol. 18 (922), p. 2
A cutting from the Bucks Advertiser is also in Dr. Lee's Astronomy Scrapbook No. 4, Gunther MS 37, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford.
There is confusion, not only due to the initials provided for Reade in the Bucks Advertiser (the local newspaper for Hartwell and Stone in Buckinghamshire), regarding the correct authorship of this paper. Read by Dr John Lee at meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society on 9 June 1854, it was clearly published as 'An Account of the Observatory at Hartwell House' by John Lee, Esq., LL.D. FRS in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 9 June 1854, Vol. 14 (No. 8), pp. 215-7. John Lee (1783–1866)of Hartwell House, near Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, was at that time a Vice-President of the Royal Astronomical Society - he was a founder member and, as we have seen, later President. He was also J. B. Reade's patron (and friend), but there seems no good reason why he should not have written this account himself, which is in the first person both in the Monthly Notices and Bucks Advertiser. In the preceding Monthly Notice of 12 May 1854 (see next footnote), J. B. Reade's account of his own observatory at Stone vicarage (one mile from Hartwell) had just been published. And before that, in the Monthly Notices of 10 March 1854 (Vol 14 (No. 5), pp. 161-3) had appeared 'An account of the Hartwell Rectory Observatory' by the Rev. C. Lowndes. The printing of the name of Reade at the head of this article in the Bucks Advertiser cannot be explained, but it also cannot yet be entirely explained away. Conceivably Reade (with his close association with Lee and Hartwell) might have partly drafted the article.

3.  Rev. J. B. Reade, M.A., F.R.S., On the Observatory at Stone Vicarage, near Aylesbury,
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 12 May 1854, Vol. 14 (no. 7), pp. 196-8
Cost of building was £244.8s.3. and the instruments (16-foot Refractor telescope, Transit instrument, and meteorological instruments) were £243.19s.9d. Dated Stone, May 9, 1854, it is published in the Monthly Notices for the meeting of 12 May 1854, but it would seem from the Report of the Council provided at the following AGM (Monthly Notices, Vol. 15, p.145) that it was not actually read at that meeting.

4.  John Adams Whipple (1822-1891) was a professional daguerreoypist with a portrait studio at 96 Washington Street, Boston. For a few years in the late 1840s and early 1850s William B. Jones was his assistant or partner.
An American publication about Science provides a valuable descripton of Whipple's daguerreotypes of the moon - Annual of Scientific Discovery: or Year-Book of Facts in Science and Art, for 1852... Edited by David Wells, Boston 1852, p. 135:
“DAGUERREOTYPES OF THE SUN AND MOON. DURING the past season, Mr. J. A. Whipple, of Boston, aided by Mr. Bond, of the Cambridge Observatory, has succeeded in taking several large and beautiful daguerreotype likenesses of the moon, as seen by a high power, under the great equatorial of the Observatory. We have rarely seen anything in the range of the daguerreotype art of so great beauty, delicacy, and perfectness, as the pictures referred to. The inequalities and striking peculiarities of the moon's surface are brought out with such distinctness, that the various mountain ranges, highlands, and isolated peaks are at once recognized. Crater-formed depressions in some of the mountains may be also seen. The views represent the moon at quarter and half-quarter, and are from three to four inches in length. Mr. Whipple, with the aid of Mr. Bond, succeeded in daguerreotyping the solar eclipse of July, in its various stages ; and also the sun's disk, with the various spots which appeared upon its surface in the spring of 1851. Several of these daguerreotypes were exhibited at the American and British Associations, and also at the Great Industrial Exhibition, where a medal was awarded to Mr. Whipple. — Editor.”
On page p. 11 of this same publication are listed the 'Awards made to exhibitors from the United States' at the Great Exhibition of 1851: “Class X Philosphical and Surgical Instruments. Council Medal. William Bond and Son, for the invention of a new mode of observing astronomical phenomena. Prize Medals [Out of eight listed]... J. A. Whipple, daguerreotype of the moon...”

5. Dr. Lee says “ Enlarged copies of Mr. Bond's photographs were laid before the Royal Astronomical Society in May”. However, the published record in the Society's Monthly Notice has only Daguerreotypes - ‘Description of the Apparatus for observing Transits, by means of a Galvanic Current, now used at the Observatory of Cambridge, U.S. By Mr. G. P. Bond.’, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, May 9 1851, Vol. 11, No. 7, pp. 163-5:
“The apparatus exhibited to the Society, is the same which has been for some time past in use at the Harvard Observatory, U.S., ... It consists of an electric break-circuit clock, a galvanic battery of a single Grove's cup, and the spring governor, by which a uniform motion is given to the cylinder carrying the paper. The electric clock is of the form proposed by Mr. Bond.”. At the end of the text published is an additional sentence:
“Daguerreotypes of the moon were exhibited to the members present, taken by Messrs. Whipple and Jones, of Boston, from the image formed in the focus of the great equatoreal of the Harvard Observatory.’
A similar talk was given two months later at the Astronomy session of the Mathematics and Physics Section of the annual meeting of the British Association at Ipswich in July 1851 - published in a shorter version as 'Description of an Apparatus for making Astronomical Observations by means of Electro-Magnetism. By G. P. and R. F. Bond, of the Cambridge United States Observatory', Advance of Science, British Association Report for 1851, Part 2, pp. 22-3. The Daguerreotypes were again displayed, with a similar simple record of the fact as “Daguerreotypes of the moon were shown to members of the Section, taken by Messrs. Whipple and Jones of Boston, from the image formed in the focus of the great Equatorial of the United States Observatory”.  Dr Lee was at that meeting in Ipswich.

6.   See also Rev. J. B. Reade, M.A., F.R.S., On Photographs of the Moon and of the Sun,
Advance of Science, British Association Report for 1854, Part 2, pp. 10-12
After discussing the daguerreotype of the moon taken by Bond in USA, and 2 calotypes by H. Pollock, Reade reports how a group of Astronomers, including himself, at Rev. Craig's telescope at Wandsworth, London, used collodion negatives prepared by Prout and printed by Dr. Diamond

 


 
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